Jack Grayson


Popular BSNL Recharge Plans With Unlimited Voice Calling

Gone are the days when you had to recharge for a certain amount to get a limited Talktime. Today, although Talktime top-ups exist, they’re definitely getting overshadowed by unlimited calling plans. And you can get a variety of those with every BSNL recharge.

Currently, when you go for a BSNL recharge, you can choose between unlimited plans, Talktime top-ups, data vouchers, SMS vouchers and more. However, the most beneficial and in-demand plan among the BSNL recharge plans is the one with unlimited voice calling.

So, before you do your next BSNL recharge online, check out these popular BSNL recharge plans that offer unlimited voice calling across operators:

Popular BSNL Recharge Plans With Unlimited Voice Calling
Pack Cost & Validity All India Voice Calls Data SMS Additional Benefits
2 Days
Truly Unlimited 1GB/Day NA NA
22 Days
Truly Unlimited NA NA Get one National Discount Deal/Coupon product daily.
30 Days
Truly Unlimited 10 GB NA Get free BSNL Tunes.
28 Days
Truly Unlimited 2GB/Day 100/Day Get free Personal Ring Back Tone (PRBT).
52 Days
Truly Unlimited 1GB/Day 100/Day Get a free subscription to  EROS Now Entertainment.
65 Days
Truly Unlimited 10 GB 300 NA
70 Days
Truly Unlimited 1GB/Day 100/Day Along with free BSNL tunes, get a free subscription to Lokdhun content.
80 Days
Truly Unlimited 2GB/Day 100/Day Get free Zing and  EROS Now Entertainment subscriptions, and PRBT.
84 Days
Truly Unlimited 5GB/Day 100/Day Get a free Zing subscription, PRBT, and unlimited free night data between 12:00 am to 05:00 am.
90 Days
Truly Unlimited 2GB/Day 100/Day Get free BSNL Tunes, EROS Now Entertainment subscription, Hardy Mobile Games Service, Challenges Arena Mobile Gaming Service and “Lystn” podcast Services. You also get free subscriptions to Lokdhun and Zing.

All the plans mentioned above, along with some more that fit under this category offer truly unlimited voice calling across the country. This means you can call anyone across the country without worrying about the operator that they use. Moreover, you’re not even charged additionally for roaming unless you step out of India.

How To Do BSNL Recharge Online?

The steps for doing your BSNL online recharge are almost the same, no matter which payment platform you use. Currently, our favourite way of doing recharges is via the Airtel Payments Bank website. Here’s how you can do your BSNL recharge from the same platform as well:

  1. Go to
  2. Log in to your Airtel Payments Bank account using your credentials.
  3. Click on the Prepaid icon.
  4. Enter your BSNL number.
  5. Select your service operator’s name as BSNL.
  6. Choose your circle, for example, Maharashtra.
  7. Select from the various BSNL recharge plans given or enter the recharge amount manually.
  8. Click on Proceed.
  9. Now, complete the payment via Airtel Payments Bank.
  10. That’s it, your BSNL recharge is done!

Apart from BSNL recharge online, you can also use this website to make your BSNL bill payment.

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BBA in International Business: The Complete Guide

Globalisation has led to tremendous growth in multinational business and employment opportunities. While many international companies are expanding their foot in India, many are seeking to hire talented Indian professionals abroad. Hence, knowledge of marketing, accounting, operations and other managerial fields is crucial for students looking for a career in international business.  BBA (Bachelor in Business Administration) in International Business aims to impart knowledge on business administration on an international level. Find out more about the BBA course in International Business in detail.

What is BBA in International Business?

BBA (Bachelor in Business Administration) in International Business is a three-year undergraduate course. It focuses on business studies and cultural concepts related to international business and global best practices. The course helps students to gain knowledge about business fundamentals and international economic scenarios and prepares them for multi-national environments.

BBA International Business Key Details

Here are some key details about the BBA course in International Business:

  • Full form: Bachelor in Business Administration in International Business
  • Level: Undergraduate
  • Course Duration: Three years
  • Type of Exam: Semester
  • Eligibility criteria: Candidates must have passed 10+2 from a recognised board with a minimum of 50% marks.
  • Selection Process: Entrance Exam based/ Merit-based
  • Average Course Fee: ₹50,000 – ₹5 lakhs
  • Job Prospects: International Operations Manager, International Training Manager, International Human Resources Manager, Accountants Executive, etc.
  • Average BBA in International Business Salary: ₹3 lakhs – ₹10 lakhs per annum

Benefits of Pursuing BBA in International Business

BBA in International Business is a lucrative career option that provides various opportunities in the field of international business. Here are some benefits of pursuing the course:

  • Lucrative salaries: BBA graduates are recruited by companies in private and government sectors at high salary packages, which may range between ₹2 lakhs – ₹4 lakhs initially and extend up to ₹10 lakhs.
  • Excellent career prospects: BBA in International Business offers several career choices for you to choose one. BBA graduates can work as International Operations Managers, International Human Resource Managers, Global Distribution Managers, Global Business Managers, etc.

BBA in International Business: Syllabus

BBA in International Business course duration is three years with a syllabus spread over six semesters. Below are the semester-wise BBA subjects:

BBA in International Business: First-year

Semester 1 Semester 2 
Business Mathematics Indian System of Business
Micro Economics & Applications Macro Economics & Applications
Computer Awareness – I Computer Awareness – II
Management Foundation Accounting – I
Economic Environment – I Economic Environment – II
Fundamentals of International Business Values & Ethics in International Business
English English
Behavioral Science – I Behavioral Science – II
Environmental Studies Global Business Management
Foreign language – I French German Spanish Japanese Chinese Foreign language – II French German Spanish Japanese Chinese

BBA in International Business: Second-Year

Semester 3  Semester 4 
Business Statistics Legal Framework of Business & Management
Financial Management – I Financial Management – II
Database Management System Principles of Marketing
Fundamentals of Marketing System analysis & design
Accounting – II International strategic management
Behavioral Science – III Behavioral Science – IV
Foreign language – III French German Spanish Japanese Chinese Foreign language – IV French German Spanish Japanese Chinese
Communication skills – I Communication skills – II
International institutions & trade implications International strategic management
Summer assignment – I (Evaluation) Project management

BBA in International Business: Third-Year

Semester 5  Semester 6 
Human Resource Management Managerial Accounting
Computer Applications Sales Management
Entrepreneurship Development Export-Import Documentation and Logistics
International Marketing Cross Cultural Management and Management of Multinational Companies
Taxation Laws and Practices International Finance Management
Communication Skills-III Communication Skills-IV
Behavioral Science-V Behavioral Science- VI
Foreign Language V- French, German, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish Foreign Language VI- French, German, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish
Operation Research E- Commerce and International Trade
Summer Internship-Evaluation

BBA in International Business: Admission Process

Admission to the BBA course is offered based on the candidate’s score in the entrance exam or based on the academic score. Here’s how you can get into BBA-IB:

  • Entrance exam-based

Admission to BBA through entrance exams requires candidates to obtain the desired score by the college. The candidates who clear the cut-off marks are then called for counselling sessions. Once the seat is allotted, the candidate must visit the college and fulfil other admission process requirements. Some of the entrance exams for BBA admissions are DSAT (Dayanand Sagar Admission Test), CUET (Christ University Entrance Test), BUMAT (Bharati Vidyapeeth Undergraduate Management Aptitude Test), etc.

  • Merit-based 

Merit-based admissions to BBA courses are based on the marks scored by the candidates in their 10+2. Candidates are required to check the merit list of desired colleges if they are eligible for admission to the course. If yes, they can visit the college and submit the required documents and fulfil other formalities.

BBA in International Business: Job Prospects

BBA in International Business offers a plethora of job opportunities in sectors such as:

  • Logistic Companies
  • Special Economic Zones
  • State Trading Corporations
  • Transportation Corporations
  • Export Houses
  • Custom Clearing Houses
  • Merchandisers
  • Shipping Companies
  • IT Companies
  • Banks

Some of the jobs and BBA international business salary in India are as follows:

Job Role  Average Salary (per annum)
Global Business Manager ₹5 lakhs
Export Manager ₹6.67 lakhs
International Logistics Manager ₹6.18 lakhs
International Brand Manager ₹10.77 lakhs
International Finance Manager ₹5.16 lakhs
International Human Resource Manager ₹4 lakhs

BBA International Business Colleges in India 

Due to the growing popularity of BBA International Business and demand for skilled professionals in the field, many colleges offer the course in India. Some of the top BBA colleges in India are as follows:

  • Amity University, Noida
  • LPU, Jalandhar
  • Alliance University, Bangalore
  • Ajeenkya DY Patil University, Pune
  • Christ University, Bangalore
  • BVDU, Pune
  • School of Management, Dr DY Patil University, Navi Mumbai
  • JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore
  • Parul University, Vadodara
  • DY Patil University, Mumbai
  • Manav Rachna international institute of research and studies, Faridabad
  • GD Goenka University, Gurgaon
  • NIMS University, Jaipur

What are the Best Courses After BBA International Business?

After completing your BBA in International Business, you can pursue higher studies courses such as:

  • Master in Business Administration
  • Master in Financial Management
  • Master in Retail Management
  • Master in Marketing Management
  • Postgraduate Diploma in Global Business
  • Postgraduate Diploma Programme in International Management
  • Masters in Management Studies, etc.


BBA in International Business is an excellent choice for students who wish to excel in the global business field. The course offers various career choices with competitive salaries. But, before deciding to pursue BBA-IB, you must research the best BBA colleges, their admission process and eligibility criteria to avoid hassles. Also, make sure that the BBA college offers the Sunstone’s benefits.

Sunstone is an education service provider in India committed to helping you build the future you envision. By pursuing BBA from a college with the Sunstone campus, you can access 100+ hours of career-enhancing training modules and appear in at least 50 job interviews. You may avail of the Sunstone’s benefits in 50+ colleges across 30 Indian cities offering 100% placement assistance to registered students.

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Creating a trading strategy for futures in the UK

Creating a trading strategy for futures in the UK can be complex, as many factors need to be considered. First, it’s essential to understand what exactly futures are and how they work.

Futures are financial contracts that specify a future transaction of an underlying asset at a predetermined price and date. In other words, they are agreements to buy or sell something at a specified price at some point in time. Futures contracts typically involve commodities like grain, oil, metals, livestock, stock indices, and currencies.

The two main types of strategies used for trading futures

When trading futures, there are two main types of strategies that you can use: directional strategies and non-directional strategies.

Directional strategies

Directional strategies involve taking a long or short position in a particular market. In other words, you’re betting that the futures contract price will increase or decrease. When trading a directional strategy, there are several factors to consider.

First, it’s essential to keep up-to-date with market news and trends to decide when and how to enter and exit positions.

Additionally, you need to carefully analyse historical price data for the asset in question to identify patterns and predict future price movements. This information is key to picking the correct entry and exit points for your trade.

It’s also essential to understand fundamental analysis to determine what types of economic events might influence prices moving forward. Finally, you’ll need to be well-versed in technical analysis and familiar with the various trading tools, such as moving averages or oscillators.

Non-directional strategies

Non-directional strategies involve taking a position that profits from the price moving in either direction, which involves using options or spread trades, which allow you to profit when the underlying futures contract goes up or down. With these types of strategies, there are several vital considerations as well.

First, it’s crucial to understand how options work and how they are priced before entering any trades. It would help if you also familiarised yourself with concepts like hedging and arbitrage to ensure that your positions remain profitable. Aside from this, it’s essential to keep up-to-date with market news and trends to know when to exercise your options or close out your contracts. Finally, you’ll need to be well-versed in technical analysis and familiar with trading tools like charts, triggers, and scanners.

What types of analysis are used in futures trading?

Several types of analysis are commonly used in futures trading, including technical, sentiment, and fundamental analysis.

Technical analysis

Technical analysis involves studying historical price data to identify patterns and predict future price movements using tools like moving averages, oscillators, and charting software.

Fundamental analysis

Fundamental analysis involves assessing economic factors that might impact the price of a particular asset or market. Some common economic indicators used in this analysis include GDP growth rates, interest rates, unemployment figures, consumer confidence indices, and inflation levels.

Sentiment analysis

Sentiment analysis is based on analysing social media trends or news articles to understand how market participants feel about a particular asset or market. This approach helps identify possible price reversals or market bottoms.

What are the benefits of using a trading strategy?

There are several benefits to using a trading strategy when trading futures. First, having a clear plan and guidelines can help you make more informed decisions, reduce risk exposure, and improve your overall profitability.

Additionally, understanding the different types of analysis used in futures trading can help you identify market trends and predict price movements more accurately. Finally, being well-versed in technical tools like charting software and scanners can help you spot new opportunities or manage existing positions more effectively.

Overall, using a trading strategy when trading futures allows traders to manage risk, take advantage of market trends, and maximise their profits over time.

The bottom line

When creating a trading strategy for futures in the UK, carefully considering all the different factors involved is essential. By understanding markets, price movements, and trading tools, you can create a successful strategy to help you achieve your financial goals.

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Know the Eligibility Criteria & Documents Required to Secure a Personal Loan.

A sudden financial emergency can hit you at any moment. Be it a medical emergency or a big-budget purchase, unforeseen expenses are unavoidable. Running from one place to another to secure money in these circumstances can be stressful. This was the scenario a few decades ago, but today, with easy financing and instant personal loans, financing has become amazingly simple. With the personal loan app, you can apply for a personal loan and get the amount credited to your account within minutes.

Unlike other types of loans, a personal loan is an unsecured loan and does not ask you to submit any collateral. So, to check whether you are a worthy candidate or not, the bank has a list of eligibility criteria and asks for you to submit some mandatory documents. Individuals who are salaried and self-employed must meet different qualifying requirements and submit relevant documentation. For better understanding, we have provided all the necessary information on personal loan eligibility and documentation if you are applying from a new loan app.

What Are Personal Loan Eligibility Criteria?

Though every lending institute may offer different rates of interest their eligibility criteria are similar to one another. Here’s a list of eligibility criteria for salaried and self-employed individuals.

  • Age: You must fall between the age range of 21 to 58.
  • Citizenship: You must be a citizen of India.
  • Occupation: Open to both salaried and self-employed individuals
  • Work Experience: As a salaried employee, you need to have been working for at least six months. In case, you are a self-employed employee, you need to have been in your current industry for at least two years.
  • Monthly Income: You must earn at least ₹15,000 every month.
  • Maximum Loan Tenure: The repayment terms can be extended up to 60 months.
  • Maximum Loan Amount: Usually you can apply for a loan of up to ₹ 5 lakh, but some lenders may offer you an amount than that depending on your profile.

What Are the Factors Affecting Your Eligibility Criteria?

Here’s a list of factors that affects your eligibility criteria for a personal loan:

  • Credit History: Your ability to obtain a personal loan will depend on your credit score and credit history. This element will influence the interest rate, loan term, and loan amount you are eligible for.
  • Age: Each lender has an age requirement that you must meet to continue the application process. The most common age criteria are between ages 21 to 58.
  • Housing situation: Your chances of getting your application accepted are better if you live in your own residence. The cause of this is that renting reduces your discretionary income, which diminishes your capacity to repay.
  • Your location: Your residence’s location is an important factor in establishing your eligibility for a personal loan.
  • Organization: Your employer will also have an impact on your ability to obtain a personal loan. You come off as having steady employment if you work for a well-known corporation with a strong reputation.
  • Existing Credit: Your possibilities of obtaining a new loan will be reduced if you have already taken out a personal loan, to improve your chances, you must pay it back on time.
  • Salary: The amount of the loan for which you would be qualified will depend on your income level. Your ability to obtain a personal loan will also be influenced by your income. So, try to maintain a steady income.

What Documents Should You Keep Handy While Applying for a Personal Loan?

Here’s a list of documents you will need to apply for a personal loan as a salaried individual:

Mandatory Documents

  • Application form
  • Coloured passport-size photo

Identity Proof (any one)

  • Aadhaar Card
  • Passport
  • License
  • PAN Card

Residential Proof (any one)

  • Passport
  • Drivers License
  • Ration Card
  • Utility Bill
  • Aadhaar Card

Income Proof

  • Form 16
  • A six-month salary slip
  • Six-month bank account statement

Residence Ownership Proof

  • Property paperwork
  • Power bills
  • Maintenance bills

Job Continuity Proof

  • Current employer letter of employment
  • Experience certificate from the previous employer

Now have a look at the list of documents necessary for a Self-employed Individual:

Mandatory Documents

  • Application form
  • Coloured passport-size photo

Identity Proof (any one)

  • Aadhaar Card
  • Passport
  • License
  • PAN Card

Residential Proof (any one)

  • Passport
  • Drivers License
  • Ration Card
  • Utility Bill
  • Aadhaar Card

Income Proof

  • Form 16
  • A six-month salary slip
  • Six-month bank account statement

Office Address Proof (any one)

  • Property documents
  • Rent agreement
  • Maintenance bill
  • Utility bill

Business Existence Proof

  • Copy of tax registration
  • Proof of shop establishment
  • Certificate of company registration


Eligibility criteria and documentation are critical components of the personal loan application process. Your loan will be accepted only if you meet the qualifying requirements. Once you have met the qualifying requirements, you must submit your papers for verification. Once the verification is over, your decided loan amount will get deposited in your bank account and can fulfill all your financial needs.

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Why Do Small-Scale Investors Choose Multi-Cap Funds?

Retail investors can be divided broadly into two – large-scale and small-scale investors. Large-scale investors are the ones who put a significant amount of money into their investments regularly. Investing could be more than a passive money-making option and rather a part-time for them. But most of the retail investors in India consist of small-scale investors. These include investors who put in a smaller portion of their salary every month in investment options like mutual funds through tools like SIPs. These groups of investors may not be as knowledgeable as large-scale investors, and they mostly look for an easier investment option. That is one reason why many small-scale investors choose multi-cap funds. But what are multi-cap funds, and why are they chosen more? Let us find out.

The need for balance

A balanced portfolio is often the most sought-after quality of an investor. Such a portfolio can ensure that your investment is appreciated and, at the same time, protected. Now, small-scale investors who cannot spend a lot of time perfecting their portfolios regularly will look for easier options to invest in a balanced portfolio. That is where mutual funds come in. They, by default, have a portfolio that is more or less balanced. But different mutual funds will have different characters, and the balance will defer too. For instance, an equity mutual fund will have more equity presence, and the balance will be affected by this too. One reason why multi-cap funds are chosen more could be because they can give you a well-balanced option by default. By how? Let us find out.

Categorization of mutual funds according to market cap

Mutual funds are categorized in multiple ways. Which, one important categorization is based on the market cap of the companies they focus on. Market capitalization, also known as market cap, is the total value of all the shares of a company. It is a dynamic figure and it is calculated by multiplying the number of stocks by the price of each stock. For example, if a company has Rs.1 lakh outstanding shares, the price at Rs.10 at this point, then the market cap of the company is Rs.1 lakh * 10  = Rs.10 lakh.

Large-cap funds

Large-cap funds are those that invest in large-cap companies. Large-cap companies are comaparitevly a safe investment option. This is because they are huge and have already attained stability. Investing in them tends to give you steady buy lower returns.

Mid-cap funds

Mid-cap funds invest in mid-cap companies mainly. Mid-cap companies are not as large as large-caps but they are still considerably big. Investing in them gives considerably stable returns but there is a higher potential for growth as they may still have space to grow. At the same time, they come with slightly higher risk as well.

Small-cap funds

All companies that are too small to be included in the above two categories are called small-cap companies. Small-cap funds invest in them. Investing in small-cap funds comes with a higher risk but they have a higher chance for growth as well.


A perfectly balanced portfolio with companies from the above three market cap categorisations is hard to create manually. This is mainly because the characteristics of these companies could change and it could be hard to monitor regularly.

But multi-cap funds are a solution here. They invest in companies of all three market caps to create a good balance. This balanced portfolio should be able to protect and at the same time, appreciate your corpus. This could be the most important reason why more small-scale investors choose multi-cap funds.

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How to get a personal loan with a low CIBIL score?

Periodically checking your CIBIL score is crucial for maintaining good credit health. CIBIL score is one of the major factors that impact your eligibility for availing financing, including personal loans. Having a strong score of 750 and above can make you an eligible candidate for an affordable personal loan offer. On the contrary, a low CIBIL score may make it challenging for you to get loan approval at favourable terms and conditions. However, getting approval with a low CIBIL score for a personal loan is not impossible if you follow certain tips.

Four tips to avail a personal loan with a low CIBIL score

  • Opt for a low loan amount

Usually, lenders hesitate to approve personal loan applications if you have a low score as it indicates poor credit history and incapability to meet Equated Monthly Instalments (EMIs) on time. When you have a low credit score, applying for a low loan amount may work in your favour. This is because a low loan amount reduces the lender’s risk, which indirectly boosts your loan approval chances. To know the loan amount you should apply for as per your repayment capacity and eligibility, you can use a personal loan EMI calculator.

  • Apply with a guarantor or co-applicant

As low CIBIL scores indicate a higher default chance and an enhanced credit risk for lenders, applying with a joint applicant can help. Adding a guarantor or co-applicant shifts the liability of your loan repayments on them if you default on the personal loan. Owing to this reason, the lender’s risk reduces, which makes them less hesitant to approve your personal loan application despite a low credit score. However, keep in mind that your co-applicant must have a high income and a good CIBIL score.

  • Show all your sources of income

Your monthly income directly indicates your repayment potential. Usually, a high income with lesser monthly obligations indicates that you have the required funds to meet your EMI payments. As a result, lenders might approve your application even if you hold a low CIBIL score. However, before you hit on the personal loan apply button on the lender’s site, ensure you have a reliable and steady income source. Besides your salary, you may also earn from other sources such as freelance work, rental properties, investments, and more.

  • Check if your credit report is up to date

Sometimes, the details in your credit report may not be up to date or there may be incorrect details in your report that may result in a lower credit score. In such cases, you must instantly report the discrepancies to the concerned authorities for correction. Rectifying such mistakes can increase your CIBIL score.

Ending note

Once you apply these tips, make sure to compare loan offers by different lenders so that you can get a good personal loan interest rate. Also, while you can get a personal loan despite a low credit score, work on improving your credit score over time as it will help you when applying for other loans in future.

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ETFs (Exchange-Traded Funds): What Are ETFs And How Do They Work?

Investments in the market are taken with the aim of earning extra revenue. People want the said extra revenue because they believe that the money will help them to take care of their day-to-day expenditures after retiring. But, before starting with your investment journey, it is imperative to remember that the act of investing is considered a long-time commitment and moreover, this action will help you with acquiring long-term wealth. When it comes to fund allocation, the income earned from the investment plans is as good as you build. For getting the portfolio right, you must get the allocation of assets i.e., equity, debt, and commodity, aligned with your investment objectives.

To build the portfolio in the right way, it is imperative that you are required to spend sufficient time studying the market and scrutinising all asset classes. After that, you should determine the level of fund allocation. It is common knowledge that several factors are known for having an impact on market sentiments, resulting in sharp variation in performance. Trying to keep up with all these factors, may not be easy for new investors. That’s where exchange-traded funds, i.e., ETFs can be helpful.

What are exchange-traded funds (ETFs)?

An example of a scheme that follows the passive investment strategy, exchange-traded funds (ETFs) is known for being shared investment tools that are known for functioning by both tracking and replicating an index. The index then can allocate funds to various asset classes like gold, debt, and equity.

Generally, these funds are known for tracking things like a sector, or a particular index.  However, the one way they are different from mutual funds is that exchange-traded funds can be either purchased or sold on an exchange just like stocks.

How do ETFs work?

ETFs are variants of mutual funds that are listed and traded on the stock exchange. This scheme can be both bought and sold with the help of an exchange just you do it with stocks. While most ETFs are generally known for being passively managed, there are some of these schemes that are actively managed as well. A portfolio for passive ETF is built in such a way that it can track an index such as the NIFTY 50. The NIFTY 50 can be defined as the index which is known for allocating funds to 50 of the largest Indian companies that are listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE).

Moreover, ETFs may even track an index that is known for representing a sector (like NIFTY Pharma), or a commodity like gold. It is also important not that ETFs are also known for having symbols, like how it is possible to identify a company’s share by a specific symbol. For instance, on the exchange, it is possible to identify the IT company Infosys through the symbol INFY. Therefore, while looking up the share price of Infosys, all you need to do is look for ‘INFY’. Similarly, ETFs come with a specific ticker symbol as an identifier. With the help of this symbol, you can determine the ETF and find its current price. It is also important to note that there are different variants of ETFs that are available in the market as investment options. The said variants of exchange-traded funds are:

  • Equity ETFs:

This type of ETF is known for tracking broad market stock indices such as the BSE SENSEX or NIFTY 50. Apart from that, there are some international ETFs that follow the popular index of global markets such as Hang Seng and NASDAQ 100. If you are fresh in the world of investing, equity ETFs will help you to take the first step in equity investing. They do so by providing you with a flavour of what investing in stock markets feels like. By signing up for such an ETF, you will also get a chance to own all stocks that are part of a popular index and help their portfolio post near index-matching returns.

  • Debt ETFs:

Debt ETFs expose your investments to debt securities such as corporate bonds, government securities, commercial papers, and many more. They are known for tracking a debt index which, at times is specifically designed for the ETFs.

ETFs are known for being low-cost investment options. An ETF can also be used for exposing your funds to any market, asset class, or commodity.

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Nowadays, a pump is necessary for some part of every sector. Pumps are crucial in the creation and upkeep of our living, from oil wells to food processing. Pumps and pipelines must be considered and constructed as one integrated system because they are interdependent, and the system may lose efficiency if one component is changed. That said, here are four ways pumps work and how they aid your industry’s goals.

Irrigation systems

In addition to powering farm machinery like tractors and combines, centrifugal pumps are used for irrigation, moving water from lakes or reservoirs to fields. Water is frequently transported from lower to higher elevations using centrifugal pumps in irrigation systems. These adaptable pumps can work with various liquids, including sewage and sludge, as well as water and chemicals.

Centrifugal pumps are essential for farmers’ businesses to function properly. Farmers also use centrifugal pumps to spray pesticides and fertilizers on crops. These pumps are frequently utilized in conjunction with other pumps, such as submersible pumps

, for the irrigation system to operate appropriately.

Even in drought or other dry circumstances, farmers and other irrigation system users can be confident that their crops will receive the right amount of water by combining various pumps from PumpBiz.

The chemical industry

Fluid movement in chemical facilities frequently involves the use of centrifugal pumps. In most cases, the fluid moves from one tank to another or from one process to another. Additionally, centrifugal pumps can move chemicals between different locations, from a storage tank to a reactor. Centrifugal pumps are frequently used in chemical facilities for a variety of purposes, such as:

  • Chemical Pumping: They can be used, for instance, to move chemicals from a storage tank to a reactor.
  • Oil and gasoline are two examples of combustible fluids that centrifugal pumps may move. It is crucial to choose a pump for these applications because pumping these fluids can be risky.

Refineries for petroleum

In oil refineries, centrifugal pumps move liquids between different processing sections. There are two common types of centrifugal pumps used in the oil industry:

  • Process pumps – These pumps work with highly viscous oils and other liquids that contain particles.
  • Utility pumps – Both light and heavy oils can be transferred using these all-purpose pumps.

An oil refinery’s effective and safe running depends on both varieties of centrifugal pumps.

Paper mills

Centrifugal pumps are also used in paper mills, one of the most typical industrial settings. A fibrous slurry of water and other liquids makes up the paper stock, and moving it through the pulping process involves centrifugal pumps. They subsequently move the pulp through the system and also aid in separating the liquid and solid fibers.

The process of treating wastewater in paper mills also employs centrifugal pumps. The pumps facilitate the proper treatment and release of wastewater by moving it through the system.

The endnote

Choosing the right pump is essential to achieving the goals of your industry.

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Tips that can help in getting favourable personal loan terms

It is quite possible to face a cash crunch at a time when you have certain expenses lined up. This could be anything like taking a spontaneous trip, renovating your house, funding a wedding, consolidating debt, or even paying for medical bills. In such cases, one useful solution can be to apply for a personal loan online and immediately arrange for the required finances.

However, before applying for a personal loan, it is important to make sure that the lender is offering favourable loan terms. This is to ensure that the loan can easily be repaid without any unnecessary financial struggles. If you are thinking of getting a personal loan, go through the following tips that can improve the chances of lenders offering favourable loan terms:

  • Consider your average account balance

A lot of people are unaware of the fact that financial institutions conduct credit appraisals where they consider their applicants’ average account balance. Lenders even consider the transaction pattern and if they find that the account’s outflow is much higher as compared to the inflow, they might hesitate to approve the loan application. This is why it is essential to have a healthy average account balance and not take out all the funds from the account as soon as your salary gets credited.

  • Avoid applying for multiple loans at the same time

There are a few applicants who apply for several personal loans from various financial institutions to cover their expenses. However, doing this is never a good idea as applying for multiple loans at the same time makes an applicant look credit hungry. This is why you should always check with the lender regarding their personal loan eligibility criteria and documentation requirements as these could differ as per each financial institution’s terms and conditions. By being aware of the lender’s requirements, you will be in a better position to know whether your application would be approved or not. Based on this, you can decide whether to apply for the loan or look for another lender, which can keep you from sending out multiple loan applications.

  • Declare all additional sources of income

An applicant’s income is a major factor based on which lenders decide whether to approve or reject them for a loan. Now, if you are earning an income from some additional sources such as rent, freelance work, or even a part-time job, make sure to declare these sources as this can improve your chances of getting favourable loan terms.

  • Improve your credit score before applying for a loan

Any financial institution will check an applicant’s credit score before approving their loan application. Ideally, it is always considered best to maintain a credit score of 750 or more before applying for a personal loan. Borrowers with good credit scores have better chances of getting favourable terms such as a lower personal loan interest rate.

Lastly, make sure to use a personal loan EMI calculator as this tool would help in displaying the loan’s Equated Monthly Instalment (EMI) payments. This would help in understanding whether the loan terms offered by the lender are favourable or not.

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Tips on using UV light in cleaning operations

Black lights, which are also known as ultra – violet lights (UV), are frequently used in professional cleaning to assist in determining whether or not hidden pathogens are present on a variety of surfaces, including walls, high-touch areas, ledges, soft furnishings, and a great many other things. The lights cause the components, including germs, urine, seminal secretions, and blood, to “emit light,” making them visible to the naked eye.

UV lights are typically utilized in the testing of surfaces, particularly when there is an epidemic of a disease or any rapid increase in the occurrences of a certain disease at a given time or place. This is done using some of the UVC cleaning systems.

However, despite the fact that many mangers and cleaning experts are familiar with UV lights, the majority of them are not knowledgeable with how to operate one.  the following are some of the most important processes involved in using a UV system:

  1. In order to identify germs on surfaces, you should use a UV light system of a professional grade that emits UV rays in extended frequencies, ranging from 100 to 400 nanometers (400 nanometers is about comparable to 1.6 inches).
  2. The testing area must be cleared. In certain circumstances, this may initially include applying an all-purpose cleanser to the area in question. However, you should not sterilize or disinfect the testing area because doing so can cause the results to be inaccurate.
  3. Before beginning the UV testing, you should move any pieces of furniture or appliances that need to have their surfaces inspected so that those areas are more easily accessible.
  4. Put on some goggles or glasses that offer UV protection.
  5. Put out any and all lights that are present in the testing area. In order for the bacteria to be exposed by the UV light, the testing locations need to be as dark as possible.
  6. If you are assessing the cleanliness of an entire room, begin in one of the room’s corners and work your way around the space while hovering over the areas you fear may be polluted. In the majority of instances, bacteria and several other pollutants will glow when exposed to UV light.

When there are mounting worries about concealed germs on surfaces, managers and cleaning experts should be aware that they have additional options at their disposal. The usage of ultraviolet lights is a very extensive process.

UV light for disinfection

Disinfecting using UV lights is a terrific complement to any cleaning regimen because it uses ultraviolet technology to quickly kill bacteria and germs. This can be done in various institutions for example UV light disinfection in hospitals. While the initial investment and other barriers to entry may deter some businesses from giving UV light disinfection a try, the following are a few of the most compelling arguments in favor of this method.

  • There is no risk from using UV Light to disinfect

UV light is a physically-based technique, as opposed to a chemically-based one, hence it is acceptable for the environment to utilize in large-scale cleaning and sanitation operations. The correct protection turns this into a safe and non-toxic disinfection tool for a wide range of businesses, from the hospitality sector to the medical field and beyond.

Wrapping up

Organizations can maintain a sanitary and bacteria-free environment with the help of UV lamps if they are used correctly. UV light disinfection is a dry and efficient cleaning method that won’t break the bank while yet showing your clients you care.

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